Monday, May 16, 2022

Lettering: Ira Schnapp’s Thirty-Plus Years in Motion Picture-Related Businesses


Decades before Ira Schnapp worked in comics, he had a long career producing lantern slides, from as early as 1917 to as late as 1939, and lettering movie posters in the 1940s. Lantern slides were shown at theaters, lecture halls, schools, etc. for entertainment, education and instruction. A history of the magic lantern is here. Schnapp worked during the silent motion picture era. Movie theaters would project slides to a captive audience who saw intertitles, news photographs, advertisements, coming attractions, song lyrics, etc. Samples of lantern slides can be viewed at the Museum of the Moving Image and the Silent Cinema Society. In the 1920s Schnapp would witness the introduction of color films and sound films

Schnapp graduated from Stuyvesant High School in 1913. The 1915 New York state census said he was a salesman who lived with his parents and siblings in the Bronx. Not long after the census Schnapp entered the lantern slide industry. On June 5, 1917, he signed his World War I draft card. Schnapp’s employer was the W.T. Slide Company (see sidebar) at 115 East 23rd Street in Manhattan. On the line for occupation was written “Letter Cliless”. (“Letter Slides” makes more sense.)

Schnapp was listed in R.L. Polk & Co.’s Trow General Directory of New York City, Manhattan and the Bronx, 1918–1919.

Schnapp Israel artist Novelty Slide Co h 483 E170th

Camera Craft, February 1917. Top: Novelty Slide Co. Samples

Jumping ahead to 1939, a news item in Motion Picture Herald, April 15, 1939, mentioned Schnapp. 
Cosmopolitan Acquires Studio
The entire facilities of National Studios, New York, have been acquired by the Cosmopolitan Studios, also of New York. Herman Rosenberg, Cosmopolitan president, announced this week. Among National executives who will join Cosmopolitan are Dave Brandies, for 22 years in charge of production; I. Schnapp, head of the art department for the last 20 years; Claire Miller, color specialist, and Ken Walmsley and Fred Bram of the sales staff.
On the surface it appeared Schnapp had worked for National Studios since 1919. However, National Studios was incorporated at the end of 1927 according to Motion Picture News, January 7, 1928. 
Five Firms Incorporate in New York State
Motion picture companies incorporating in New York State during the last week of the year, and receiving charters from the department of state at Albany, included the following: National Studios, Inc., capitalization not specified, Dolly V. Samose, Gertrude M. Ballinger and Leona Zilber, New York City ...
From late 1927 to 1939, National Studios was in business for twelve years which was eight years short of Schnapp’s reported twenty years. What had happened was National Studios, beginning in 1928, merged with several companies. Printers’ Ink, October 11, 1928, said 
National Studios, Inc., New York, has been organized through a merger of three manufacturers of advertising display, of that city. These three companies are the Excelsior Illustrating Company, the Standard Slide Corporation and National Photographers, Inc.

National Studios, Inc., has also acquired the Animated Products Corporation and the Manhattan Slide & Film Corporation.
Research on the above companies revealed Schnapp worked at the Standard Slide Corporation which had merged with Novelty Slide Company. Motion Picture World, January 11, 1919, reported the Standard Slide Corporation banquet and said 
... The Standard Slide Corporation is the outgrowth of the old Novelty Slide Company, established by Joseph F. Coufal [see sidebar], originally located at 57th Street near Sixth Avenue, removed to 20 E. 14th Street, occupying a back hall room. Afterwards it went to 71 W. 23rd Street and is now located on [209 West] 48th Street.
Moving Picture Age, December 1919 said Schnapp was in charge of Standard’s art department.
“New Idea” Found on a Journey to “Slide Land”
Slide-Land, as we have seen, is a successful, composite unit of many departments. It is as if a great many wheels were revolving in perfect harmony, pushing efficiently onward in perfect unison. In each department specialists concentrate on their particular line of endeavor and consequently we find new ideas being constantly introduced, thus keeping this organization well to the front in lantern slide progress. When the old style illustrated song slides passed away, through conditions over which the slide industry had no control, most people predicted that song slides would never come back. Realizing, however, the value of the illustrated song to any program, Mr. Nat Cherin (who aside from being treasurer of the Standard Slide Corporation, is the executive head and managing director of the song slide department) originated and created the New Idea Illustrated Song Slide.

This New Idea differs from the old style slides, first, in that the slide is either illustrated by popular movie stars or artistically hand sketched, thus striking a popular chord in the hearts of movie patrons; second, from two to three lines of the song which the scene illustrates appear on the slide, thus enabling the audience to read or sing the words which, with the old style slides, were often unintelligibly rendered! third, the use of the indestructible mica slide which permits using the chorus as often as may be desired without danger of breaking the slide; fourth, the elimination of the second verse, thus consuming less time for the rendition of the number—an important item with every theater manager. 

That the New Idea Song Slide is a success is evidenced by the fact that prominent music publishers in this country have availed themselves of this screen attraction, but more important is the fact that motion picture theaters have added the New Idea Illustrated Song Slide to their regular program, reporting that their patrons enjoy this attraction as much as any other feature number on the bill. 

In this connection, the Standard Art Department is deserving of considerable credit for the artistic effects which they produce on these song slide originals, embellishing the movie star scenes in appropriate designs and combining with them the words of the song in an artistic manner. This department is under the direction of I. Schnapp, assisted by J. K. Dommerque and not only prepares the song slide originals for the camera, but likewise the art work for feature film advance slides and Standard national advertising slides.

It must be here mentioned that the mica slide used in the New Idea Song Slides is an original and exclusive product of this corporation, manufactured under the only patent ever granted by this government for a transparent slide other than glass, and as explained above, large numbers of these slides are used for song choruses. But they are also being successfully employed in propaganda announcements such as the present Red Cross drive and during the war were introduced for government needs in the Liberty Loan, Fuel and Food Drives and other campaigns. The development of the mica slide from its crude inception to its perfected stage today is a tribute to the Standard Slide Corporation heads.

In the printing department where these mica slides are produced, thoroughly-trained workers devote their best efforts to making these mica slides just a little better than would even seem necessary, while in another section of the print shop, the corporation printing is produced with the usual Standard care and efficiency. This entire department is under the management of Arcadio Valenzuela, one of the heads responsible for the elevation of the mica slide industry to its present high plane.
Schnapp was an artist who illustrated and lettered many of the lantern slides. Schnapp’s talent brought him quick success and stature in the lantern slide industry. He was doing much more than art and lettering. Schnapp had a staff of artists, letterers and colorists; the exact number is unknown. He was probably involved with hiring and firing personnel. He assigned and art directed projects that were produced on a schedule. 

Based on available documents, Schnapp’s lantern slide employment began with W.T. Slide Company. By 1918 he was with the Novelty Slide Company which had the same address, 115 East 23rd Street, as W.T. Slide Company. In 1919 Novelty Slide Company merged with Standard Slide Corporation which would be acquired by National Studios, Inc. in 1928. So that’s how Schnapp had a twenty-year career with National Studios, Inc. which began as National Photographers, Inc. in 1914. Defendant’s testimony, in 1936, at the Supreme Court of the State of New York, said 
.. That agreement was continued in force after the incorporation of National Studios, Inc., the successor of National Photographers, Standard Slide, Co., Superior Slide Co., Manhattan Slide Co., Greater New York Slide Co., Excelsior Illustrating Co., B. Knoppelman and Animated Products Co.
By the mid-1930s the Silent Movie era ended and, along with it, the intertitles faded out. 

In 1939 National Studios, Inc was taken over by Cosmopolitan Studios, Inc. which was founded by H. A. Rosenberg, a former president of Standard Slide Corporation and former vice-president of National Studios, Inc. 

1949 Postcard

The length of Schnapp’s employment at Cosmopolitan Studios, Inc. is unknown. He was doing freelance assignments. In 1940, he produced the newspaper series “The Art of the Ages”. His Superman logo appeared on Superman #6, September-October 1940. This logo for National (DC) Comics suggests he had done work earlier for the pulps produced by Harry Donenfeld and Jack Liebowitz, the owners of National Comics. 

In Alter Ego #157, March 2019, Richard J. Arndt interviewed Barbara Friedlander who worked at DC Comics in the 1960s. 
RA: What can you tell us about the DC bullpen of the 1960s? …

Friedlander: I knew Sol Harrison, Jack Schiff, Ira Schnapp, and Walter Hurlicheck. … Ira was ancient, an elderly person when I knew him. He’d worked at DC for years but before that he’d worked in the movies doing the lettering on movie posters. He could tell you about all the movies that he made posters for. He was a very interesting character. …
Schnapp had a career doing movie poster lettering during the 1940s. When Schnapp signed his World War II draft card, he was self-employed and had a studio at 442 West 42nd Street in Manhattan. The 1942 New York City directory listed sign-maker Arnold Baum at the same address. The business was operated by Edward Arnold and his uncle, William Baum. (Their relationship was recorded in the 1920 census.) It’s likely Schnapp knew both men and may have worked on some of their signs. An advertisement in the Diary and Manual of the Real Estate Board of New York, Inc. 1925 showed Baum and Arnold had been business partners seventeen years ago.

Their advertisement for bronze memorial tablets appeared in The Living Church Annual 1931. They had an entry in the 1937 Directory of New York State Manufacturers
Baum & Arnold 442 W. 42nd St. ..... Signs
Props.: Edward Arnold and William Baum
So far there is no evidence they produced movie posters. The company exists today as W & E Baum

Around 1949 Schnapp became staff letterer at National Comics. The 1950 U.S. Federal Census said Schnapp was a commercial artist who worked 40 hours the previous week. He and his family resided in Manhattan at 515 Cathedral Parkway (also known as West 110th Street and the same address in 1940) in apartment 2A.

Schnapp passed away in July 1969.

* * * * * * * * *

SIDEBAR: Joseph Felix Coufal

Joseph Felix Coufal was responsible for hiring Ira Schnapp. 

Coufal was born on March 16, 1886 in Manhattan, New York City, according to his birth certificate at His parents were Czechoslovakian. Much of Coufal’s early life is unknown. 

Moving Picture World, January 1908, said Coufal was the general manager of the Novelty Theater at 871 Third Avenue in Manhattan. The April 1908 issue of Moving Picture World said 
Owing to the rapidly increasing demand for their service, the Novelty Slide Company has just opened up spacious studio and offices at 221 East Fifty-third street, New York City, where they, will be pleased to see their old customers and make new friends as well. Their stock is one of the largest in the country, and their manager, Mr. Joseph F. Coufal, reports a very large business. In addition to the slide renting, the Novelty Slide Company will manufacture song slides and announcement slides of real high-class novelty and artistic originality; this department is in charge of Mr. Gerard Passy, the well-known French photographer. Their first set of song slides, “Mary Blaine” (Helf & Hager, Publishers) is now ready, and the photography and coloring is certainly very good.
Novelty Slide Company moved to East Fourteenth Street in 1912. 

Coufal appeared in a group photograph published by Billboard on July 13, 1912. 

Motography, March 4, 1916, noted Novelty Slide Company’s new location.
The Novelty Slide Company, manufacturer of all kinds of lantern slides, has moved from its former quarters at 67 West Twenty-third street, New York, to 115 and 117 East Twenty-third street.
In 1918, Coufal hired Schnapp. 

The following year Coufal was involved with the merger of Novelty Slide Company and Standard Slide Corporation. Apparently he left the lantern slide business in the 1920s.

Coufal’s endeavors in the 1930s and 1940s, were chronicled in the Brooklyn Eagle

Coufal passed away on July 11, 1948. He was laid to rest at Calvary Cemetery

* * * * * * * * *

SIDEBAR: W.T. Slide Company

In 1917 Ira Schnapp was employed at the W.T. Slide Company which was located at 115 East 23rd Street in Manhattan. The Novelty Slide Company was at the same location and employed Thomas G. Wiley. He was an English theater actor who came to New York in 1907. How he met Coufal is unknown. Wiley was mentioned in Motion Picture News, July 25, 1914. 
Thomas T. [sic] Wiley, the able representative of the Novelty Slide Company, played a prominent part both in the manufacturers’ meetings and with his display on the exposition floor. The latter was most varied and interesting. Novelty slides were very much to the fore.
The initials of his first and last name are TW and switched around become WT. There is the possibility that Wiley was involved with the W.T. Slide Company and was first to hire Schnapp. W.T. Slide Company went out of business and may have merged with Novelty Slide Company. 

Wiley was born on October 3, 1887 in London, England and passed away January 21, 1957 in New York City.

* * * * * * * * *

Further Reading
Lantern Slides: How to Make and Color Them: A Handbook of Information Concerning the Production of Lantern Slides by Approved Methods (1920)
Page sixteen mentioned white lettering on a black background.

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(Next post Monday: Question Mark)

Monday, May 9, 2022

Creator: Neal Adams in the 1940s and 1950s

1959 Kaleidoscope yearbook
of the School of Industrial Art

Neal Edward Adams was born on June 15, 1941, in New York City. The New York, New York, Birth Index, at, listed a “Neal E Adams” born on June 15, 1941 in Manhattan. Wikipedia said he was born on Governor’s Island. Adams’ sister, Lynne F. Adams was born on May 9, 1943 on Governor’s Island. Their parents were Frank W. Adams and Lillian Rose Barry who obtained a marriage license on August 30, 1940 in the Bronx. The New York Times, May 4, 2022, said “His mother, Lillian, ran a boardinghouse. His father, Frank, who was largely absent, was a writer for the military.” 

Adams grew up in a military family who lived at various east coast locations including the Bronx and Lancaster, Pennsylvania. At some point the family moved to occupied Germany. Adams said his father was an army sergeantThe Jerusalem Post said Adams recalled being nine years old when he watched newsreel footage of World War II concentration camps. In the Times, August 6, 2008, Adams said he was ten when he saw the footage. Where the Adams family was stationed is not known at this time. Below are maps of occupied Germany from Forging the Shield: U.S. Army in the Cold War 1951–1962 (2015). 

In an interview conducted by Howard Chaykin, Adams recalled some of the comic strips, comic books, radio programs, television shows and movies of his childhood. 

On October 22, 1953, Adams, his mother and sister sailed aboard the USNS General Alexander M. Patch from Bremerhaven, Germany. They arrived at the port of New York on October 31.

Brooklynite Adams attended the School of Industrial Art (SIA) where he studied cartooning. The instructor was Charles Allen. Allen was a gag cartoonist who contributed to Colin Allen’s What a Family. Adams talked about his time at SIA in Cartoonist Profiles #12, December 1971. 

Adams graduated in 1959 and looked for work at DC and Archie Comics.

SIDEBAR: Neal Adams’ Mother and Sister

Lillian Adams passed away on February 15, 1997 in Troy, New York. 

Lynne Adams Smith passed away on April 4, 2011. Her obituary appeared in the Troy Record, April 6.
Lynne F. Adams, 67, of the Kennedy Towers, died on April 4, 2011. Born on Governor's Island, NY, a daughter of the late Frank W. and Lillian Rose Barry Adams, she was wife of the late Harold Smith. Lynne grew up in Germany and resided in Queens, NY for many years. She moved to this area in 1990 to care for her ailing mother. She was a driver for the Star and Strand Company in Troy and she enjoyed playing bingo, sewing and being with family and friends. She was the mother of Ted, Al, Mark and Scott Smith, Lee and Teresa Adams; sister of Neal Adams and grandmother of ten grandchildren. Funeral service at the Parker Bros. Memorial, 2013 Broadway, Watervliet on Friday at 12 noon with visiting from 11 am until the time of the service. Burial will follow in St. Peter’s Cemetery, Troy. 

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Monday, May 2, 2022

Creator: Walter Huxley, Printer, Typographer and Illustrator

Walter Huxley was born on December 1, 1890, in New York, New York, according to his World War II draft card. His father’s name, Christian, was on Huxley’s 1940 marriage certificate. The 1940 U.S. Federal Census recorded his mother’s name, Anna, and birthplace, France. All of them have not yet been found in the federal and New York state censuses from 1900 to 1930.

By the early 1920s, Huxley was in San Francisco, California. In the American Printer, October 1926, Huxley described his training. 
My readers would probably like to know something about the artist who designed the June 20 and August American Printer covers. He is Walter Huxley. His father wanted him to learn a trade, so young Huxley chose printing. After he learned the mechanics of the craft trade journals and books opened a new vista. Examples of fine printing by the early craftsman, with the decorations and wood cut illustrations, enthused him. Wishing to learn what other printers were doing and thinking about Mr. Huxley left New York and moved westward, working in printshop by the way. Not until he reached San Francisco, he says, did he find the spirit of craftsmanship he was seeking. There he was an executive with the Metropolitan Press, I quote him: 

“There wasn’t a more enthusiastic crowd anywhere than the San Francisco Bay Cities Club of Printing House Craftsman. It was here that I came into contact with such exponents of the art as John Henry Nash, Edwin Grabhorn and Haywood Hunt. After listening to Mr. Nash and others at the meetings of the club I decided to go to Chicago to acquire additional skill. I wanted to take a course in drawing, composition, design and wood-block cutting at the Art Institute of Chicago, so that I could design illustrations and decorations to harmonize with typography. 

“I attended classes during a regular three year course and two special summer courses [1922 to 1925] while working on the night shift of Bertsch & Cooper. In the splendidly equipped Bertsch & Cooper office the craftsman spirit prevailed, the work turned out being of the highest standard.

“One year of my course at the Art institute of Chicago was spent in the Department of printing Arts, directed by Ernst F. Letterer. Mr. Detterer is doing a good deal to develop the craft spirit through his classes. A great many students of his department are going into the advertising field or the the designing of fine books. In order that his students may appreciate the relationship between decoration, illustration and typography he teaches them through simple projects the essentials of type-setting. Mr. Detterer also has on hand a collection of some of the finest products of modern private presses, as well as specimens of earlier printing and manuscripts for the inspiration of his students. 

“Last September I returned to New York City to continue my studies, Allen Lewis of the Art Students League was my instructor. He is another man moved by the spirit of craftsmanship and who has a fine graphic feeling in the woodcuts and lettering he designs. 

“One thing I’d like to experiment with is this: to try to achieve a harmony between the mood of a story and the mood of its illustrations, typography and color. So that when you pick up a book that is gay in feeling—that same gayness will be expressed in the choice of type, in the quality of its illustrations and decorations, and in its color.”
The Pacific Printer and Publisher, February 1922, wrote about the San Francisco Bay Cities Club of Printing House Craftsman. A photograph of the members included Huxley. 

Far left: Huxley

This issue included an insert, “Craftsmanship in Printing: Its Development and Ideals and How it May Reach Its Highest Expression in San Francisco”. 

The Inland Printer, April 1924, published a letter from Huxley who was a student at the Art Institute of Chicago. 
As student of the department of printing arts of the Art School of the Art Institute of Chicago, I wish to express the gratitude of any fellow students and myself for the additional copies of the insert appearing in The Inland Printer for February, which you so kindly supplied us. We also appreciate the fact that through this publicity our school has been brought to the attention of the printing world. And as a printer, I should like to bring to the attention of craftsmen, and those who find pleasure and inspiration in fine printing, some facts about our department of printing arts, which I am sure will be of interest to them. 

The department of printing arts is still in its infancy, having been organized in September 1921, with E. F. Detterer as director, for the purpose of training designers for the printing and allied trades. The course of study covers a period of two years, in addition to a year in the lower school required of every student. In the lower school, or first year, the student is taught the fundamentals of design, drawing, lettering and color. In the second year at the department of printing arts course of study includes book block design, cutting and printing, drawing from life with anatomy lectures, lectures and criticisms on pictorial compositions, lettering, typesetting, presswork, history of art and shop visits. The third year offers the student a choice of either the advertising design or book design work. The advertising design program includes drawing from life, printing design, typesetting and presswork, advertising design for posters, and magazine advertisements, and lettering. The book design course includes drawing from life, pictorial composition, lectures on composition, writing and illuminating, lettering, pen drawing, typesetting and presswork. 

The mere outlining of the course gives but a faint notion of the ideals of craftsmanship which the student acquires. He becomes skilled, not only in designing attractive decorations, lettering and illustration, but he learns how to combine them with type, paper and ink, so that the whole project is a beautiful creation. Another source of inspiration and study to which the student has access is the collection of fine manuscript in the possession of the Art Institute, and some of Mr. Detterer’s collection, together with some originals and reproductions of the pages of the master printers and designers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. From time to time the department receives specimens of craftsmanship from the Continent, giving us, for study, the modern point of view in the illustration and decoration of the printed page.

It was not until 1922 that the department acquired sufficient equipment, donated by printers and concerns of the allied trades, to do nearly all the work of typesetting and woodblock printing at the school. At present the type equipment is not nearly sufficient for the twenty-nine students. Here is a real opportunity for all craftsmen and those who struggle in the cause of better printing, to give practical help in building up an institution headed in the right direction. Just as soon as we get the type we need to set the beautiful pages, embellished with decoration and illustration, so much sooner can we hope to see them reproduced for your pleasure in Mr. Frazier’s Specimen Review department, or, if the privilege is again granted us, in another insert. Not only will you be helping us in our experimental work, but you will be helping to produce the draftsmen who, in the future, will be doing some of the best work in America, and you will aid in establishing a source from which skilled craftsmen can be drawn. Mr. Detterer, I am sure, will welcome the cooperation of craftsmen’s club and all individuals interested in the graphic arts. 
The 1923 Chicago city directory listed a Walter Huxley at 1526 North LaSalle. He was a clerk at the Hyde Park YMCA. 

In September 1925, Huxley moved to New York City. The New York Times, August 1, 1955, said Huxley worked at the American Type Founders Company. He was a member of the New York Typographical Union No. 6. Huxley and partners established the Huxley House in 1928. (The company’s address, 216 East 45th Street, was shared by Advertising Agencies Service Co. Inc., Continental Typefounders Association, Vandercook & Sons, Inc., and Photo-Lettering, Inc.)

American Printer, June 20, 1926, cover design

American Printer, July 1926, illustration

American Printer, August 1926, cover design

The New York Post, May 5, 1930, reported the Art Directors Club prizes.
Decorative Designs
Walter Huxley, medal, for his drawing for the Bauer Type foundry. 
Walter Huxley, first honorable mention, for his drawing for J. B. Moehm
Huxley designed the typeface Huxley Vertical in 1935. 

Image found on eBay

The 1940 census recorded Huxley and his mother in Manhattan, New York City, at 235 East 50th Street. He was a self-employed typographer whose highest level of education was the fourth year of high school.

On June 19, 1940, Huxley and Ida Isabell Scott, a naturalized citizen born in Canada, obtained a marriage license in Manhattan. Ten days later they married on June 29. The witnesses were Hazel P. Scott and Herman Springer, according to the w York, New York, Index to Marriage Licenses at The newlyweds went on a cruise from June 29 to July 12. 

On April 27, 1942, Huxley signed his World War II draft card. His address was 5101 39th Avenue, Long Island City in Queens. He was described as six feet two inches, 210 pounds, with hazel eyes and gray hair. 

Huxley passed away on July 31, 1955, in Salisbury, Connecticut. An obituary appeared in the Star-Journal (Long Island City, New York) on August 1, 1955.
Funeral services for Walter Huxley, 64, of Woodside, a typographer and type designer, will be held at 1 P.M. tomorrow in Canaan, Conn.

Mr. Huxley, who lived at 51-01 39th avenue, died yesterday at his summer home in Falls Village, Conn.

He was one of the founders of Huxley House in Manhattan, a firm specializing in advertising typography.

Mr. Huxley studied four years at the Art Institute of Chicago and taught there for two years following his graduation.

He then returned to New York City, his birthplace, and took employment with the American Type Founders Company.

Mr. Huxley maintained his membership in the Typographical Union No. 6 after entering the Huxley House partnership in 1928. Six years later he designed “Huxley Vertical” type face.

He was chairman of the New York group of the Advertising Typographers Association of America Inc.

Surviving are his wife, Mrs. Ida Huxley, and two sisters.
His death was also noted in the Inland Printer, September 1955. 
Death of Walter Huxley Ends Long Career in Typography
Walter Huxley, who with Franz C. Hess founded Huxley House, advertising typography firm in New York City, died on July 31.

Born in New York 64 years ago, Mr. Huxley served his apprenticeship in composing rooms, then went to Chicago, where he studied under Ernest Detterer and worked with designer Oswald Cooper. He was associated with John Henry Nash in San Francisco for several years before he returned to New York. There he served in a number of plants and then joined the American Type Founders type design department. For many years Mr. Huxley represented the Advertising Typographers of America on the National Board on Printing Type Faces.

Further Reading
Linotype, Walter Huxley 
Luc Devroye, Walter Huxley 
RIT Libraries, Huxley House 

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(Next post on Monday: Neal Adams in the 1940s and 1950s)

Monday, April 18, 2022

Lettering and Typography: Exclamation Point

February 15, 1913
Illustration by Carl Erickson

Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office
February 5, 1946

Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office
December 6, 1949

ex'cla-ma'tion by Coty, 1988

new ex'cla-ma'tion logo

Briefest Correspondence: Question Mark? Exclamation Mark! 

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(Next post on Monday: Comic Book Trademarks, Part 9)