Monday, October 25, 2021

Inspiration: The Reflection

Will Bradley, The Inland Printer, July 1894

Mike Hinge, Algol, Summer 1975

(Next post on Monday: Richard Hudnut and Helena Rubenstein Trademarks)

Monday, October 11, 2021

Creator: Herb Lubalin’s World War II Draft Card

Herb Lubalin signed his World War II draft card on October 16, 1940. 

Name: Herbert Fred Lubalin
Address: 1 Club Drive, Woodier, New York
45-18 42nd Street, Sunnyside, New York (crossed out)
213 East 25th Street, New York, New York (crossed out)
305 Beach 47 Street, Edgemere, New York (crossed out)
210 West 19th Street, New York, New York (crossed out)
Spouse: Sylvia Lubalin, 45-18 42nd Street, Sunnyside, New York
Employer: Adler & Lubalin, 17 49 Grand Concourse, Bronx, New York

Related Posts
(Next post on Monday: Comic Book Trademarks, Part 3)

Monday, October 4, 2021

Comics: Shelly Leferman, Letterer, Artist, Colorist and Writer

Sheldon “Shelly” Leferman was born on August 22, 1922, in Stamford, Connecticut, according to his World War II draft card. His Social Security application named his parents, Isadore Leferman, a Romanian emigrant, and Henrietta Kaufman, a New Yorker.

The 1930 U.S. Federal Census said Leferman was the youngest of three siblings. The family of five lived at 71 Warren Street in Stamford. His father was the proprietor in the news dealer business.

In the 1940 census the Leferman family was in Stamford at 261 Glenbrook Road. Leferman’s father operated a truck delivery for magazines. Leferman completed three years of high school. Information about his art training has not been found.

Who’s Who of American Comic Books 1928–1999 said Leferman did gag cartoons for local newspapers and national magazines in the early 1940s.

On June 30, 1942, nineteen-year-old Leferman signed his World War II draft card. He lived with his parents at 273 Glenbrook Road. His draft card said he was employed at Magazine Photo-Engraving Company in Stamford. Leferman’s description was five feet seven inches, 130 pounds, with brown eyes and hair.

A Navy muster roll dated
November 30, 1943, at, placed Leferman at the Naval Construction Training Center at Camp Peary, in Williamsburg, Virginia. He enlisted on November 3, 1943 at New Haven, Connecticut. His service number was 8082006. Leferman was a seabee in the 28th Special Naval Construction Battalion. A book about the battalion, Cargo Soundings Album, was published in 1946. It covered the battalion’s service, from April 1944 to November 1945, in the Pacific Theatre. The album had scores of photographs but no one was identified except in the formal portraits. Below is a photograph of an artist who appears to fit the description of Leferman, who had brown hair.

The Stamford Advocate, March 31, 2007, said “… Upon discharge from the Navy, Shelly who was a gifted illustrator went to work for King Features in New York where he worked on such comics as Batman and Superman. He was a member of the Cartoonists Guild of America. …” 
Leferman’s idea was used in Jimmy Hatlo’s cartoon panel, They’ll Do It Every Time, May 31, 1949.

Stamford city directories, from 1947 to 1957, listed Leferman as a cartoonist in New York. The 1958 and 1959 Darien, Connecticut directories said he worked at Picturette Printing Company. During the first half of the 1960s, Stamford directories said Leferman was supervisor and artist at Brock Press. In the second half of the 1960s he was at King Features Syndicate. Directories for 1970 and 1971 listed him as a commercial artist in New York.

Leferman also lettered comic books for about twenty years, from the mid-1960s to mid-1980s. His clients included Marvel, DC, Seaboard, Western Publishing, Pacific Comics and Byron Preiss Visual Publications. Horror Comics in Black and White: A History and Catalog, 1964–2004 (2013) said Leferman was a writer and letterer for Jim Warren’s horror magazines.

Left: Splash page from the eight-page story, E’sprit de Corps!, in Green Lantern #151, April 1982.

The Stamford Advocate said
… But his passion for cartoons and illustrations gave him another career at Stew Leonard’s in Norwalk as their art director. Much of his work can still be seen today throughout the store and on much of the packaging. He retired from Stew Leonard’s at the age of 78 after 22 years and won several awards for his design work. ...
Leferman passed away on March 30, 2007, in Stamford. He was laid to rest at Independent Stamford Lodge Cemetery.


Monday, September 27, 2021

Creator: Eric Pape, Illustrator and Painter

Eric Pape was born Frederick Ludwig Moritz Pape Jr. on October 17, 1870, in San Francisco, California, according to his passport application at

Pape’s father operated a business selling groceries and liquors in San Francisco on the northwest corner of Jackson Street and Battery Street as recorded in the 1887 San Francisco directory. Pape was listed as an art student. The family resided at 2109 Leavenworth Street.

A passport was issued on August 23, 1888 to Pape who planned to further his art training in France. His art training and early art career were examined in Brush and Pencil, March 1899.

In Paris Pape met art student Alice Monroe. On August 16, 1894 Pape married Monroe in Dover, New Hampshire. The marriage certificate said Pape’s parents were Frederick Pape and Marie Miren. Monroe was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts and her parents were Lewis B. Monroe and Adeline F. Osgood

At some point Pape moved to New York City. He was listed in the 1897 New York City directory as an artist who had a studio at 939 8th Avenue, and resided at 181 West 87th Street. After a period of time Pape settled in Boston.

Pape was profiled in The Art Interchange, May 1900. The profile was illustrated with rare photographs of Pape, Monroe and their Boston studios. In 1899 he established the Eric Pape School of Art in Boston.






A Brookline, Massachusetts death certificate, dated February 7, 1902, was filed for the couple’s stillborn daughter.

In the 1910 U.S. Federal Census, Pape, his wife and son, Moritz, lived in Gloucester, Massachusetts at 11 Bennett Street. The census revealed Pape’s parents were German emigrants. The household included two servants.

The passing of Pape’s wife was noted in the American Art Annual, Volume 9, 1911.
Pape, Alice Monroe.—A painter, died at her home, The Plains, Manchester-by-the-Sea, Mass., on May 17, 1911. She was born in Boston and studied art in that city under Dennis Bunker and George H. Clements, and in Paris under Bouguereau, Robert-Fleury and Lazare. She passed seven years in Europe, mostly in Paris and Switzerland. She married Eric Pape, the painter, and her sister is the wife of the sculptor, George Grey Barnard. She was a pianist and double bass viola-player.
The Chelsea, Massachusetts birth register, at, recorded her birth date as March 22, 1867. An obituary was published on May 18 in the Boston Transcript.

The 1920 Gloucester Suburban, Massachusetts city directory listed Pape at “School byd Essex County Club grounds” in Manchester.

The New York, New York Marriage License Index, at, said Pape and Alice Byrne obtained a marriage license on September 17, 1920 in Manhattan. The New York Times, September 24, 1920, said
Eric Pape, widely known as an artist and stage designer, was married on Friday of last week to Miss Alice Bryne, actress and authoress. The ceremony was performed by the Rev. Dr. Vincent C. Lahey at the Little Church Around the Corner, and the friends of the couple learned only yesterday that the marriage had taken place. …

His bride, Alice Byrne, is an artist and actress and the author of several  books for children. She has appeared here with Lou Tellegen in “The King of Nowhere” and several other plays. Mr. and Mrs. Pape will live at Manchester-by-the-Sea, in Massachusetts.
Pape was listed in the 1924 Boston city directory at 247 Newberry Street. The following year the directory said he moved to New York City. Directories for 1926 and 1927 have an “E Pape” at 957 2nd Avenue in Manhattan.

In the 1930 U.S. Federal Census, Pape’s address was 142 East 18 Street in Manhattan. He was a self-employed artist. His wife was 29 years old.

Pape passed away on November 7, 1938, in New York City. The New York Times, November 9, 1938, said
Eric Pape, the artist who founded the Eric Pape School of Art in 1898 and was its director until 1913, died Monday morning in the City Hospital on Welfare Island, to which he was removed on Friday after collapsing from a heart attack while walking on Eighth Avenue near Fortieth Street. He never regained consciousness. His age was 68.

Mr. Pape, who had exhibited his pictures in Paris, Munich and many American cities, was born in San Francisco. He received his art education in Paris in the studios of Boulanger, Lefebvre and Doucet and at the Ecole des Beaux Arts under Gerome and Laurens.

After teaching for a year in the Cowles Art School in Boston, Me. Pape came to New York and started his own school, of which he was the chief instructor. He was also a stage designer, his work in this field including the settings for the production of Percy Mackaye’s “Canterbury Pilgrims,” given in honor of President Taft at Gloucester, Mass., in 1909.

In 1895 he designed the scenery for one of the earliest productions of “Trilby,” which was presented in Sherry’s ballroom, Alice Monroe Pape, the artist’s first wife, who died in 1911, appeared as Trilby and the late Evart Jansen Wendell acted the Laird.

Mr. Pape had long been  member of The Players, for which he was proposed by Mark Twain. He also was a member of the United Arts Club of London and a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts of London.

Surviving are his widow, who was Alice Byrne at their marriage in 1920; a son by his first wife, Moritz Pape, and a bother, August Pape, both of San Francisco.
Further Reading
Illustrators: Biography and The Gloucester Pageant

Monday, September 20, 2021

Comics: Comic Book Trademarks, Part 2

Images from the 1940 Official Gazette of the United States Patent Office

Ka-Zar was a pulp character created by Martin Goodman. Ka-Zar appeared in Timely comic books. A comic strip was planned. Abraham Goodman is Martin’s brother. 

Related Post

(Next post on Monday: Eric Pape, Illustrator and Painter)